Gto Orbit



Orbit Orange GTO convertible Pontiac 400 V8 5-speed 12-bolt PS PB A/C Leather /// Like your muscle cars both head-turning AND fun to drive? This picturesque Poncho is just what youve been looking f. 静止遷移軌道、静止トランスファ軌道(せいしせんいきどう、せいしトランスファきどう、geostationary transfer orbit, GTO)は、人工衛星を静止軌道にのせる前に、一時的に投入される軌道で、よく利用されるのは、遠地点が静止軌道の高度、近地点が低高度の楕円軌道である. GTO: Gran Turismo Omologato: GTO: Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit: GTO: Gate Turn-Off thyristor: GTO: Geostationary Transfer Orbit: GTO: Gas to Olefins: GTO: Golgi Tendon Organ (anatomy) GTO: Group Training Organisations (Australia) GTO: Geographic Targeting Order: GTO: Gomer Tip Over (medical slang) GTO: Good Time Oldies: GTO: General Telecommunications Organization: GTO. 1970 pontiac gto judge wt1 - orbit orange original - $98,000 (hamilton) fully restored pristine condition this car is immaculate true original orbit orangematching number car -all numbers match - phs docs includedfactory original:original 400 4bbl - block code ws = matches vin#ram airm20 4 speed factory air. Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) to close, near-circular orbits of the Moon. The intent is to identify the important parameters affecting the problem and to bound (approximately) the range of required AV for a spacecraft that has been placed in GTO.

Enter your initial low earth circular orbit inclination and height.

Example inclinations: Based on latitudes of launch sites:
Sea Launch 0 deg, Kourou 5.23 deg, Kennedy 28.5 deg, Tyuratam 46 deg.

Example initial low parking orbit heights: 200 km or 300 km.

Final circular orbit height for geostationary orbit satellites is 35786.13 km
O3b orbit height is medium earth orbit (MEO) at 8063km.

If interested, enter your low earth circular orbit 'off-the-rocket' orbit mass (inclusive of spacecraft fuel) and specific impulse of the perigee motor.
Specific impulse of solid fuel motors is about 285 to 295 s.
Liquid bi-propellant systems give a specific impulse of about 310 s.
Ion thrusters, specific impulse = 1000 - 10000 s (approx)

Calculation results are the delta Vs to get from circular LEO orbit to elliptical transfer orbit and and from transfer orbit to geo orbit and fuel used.


These are approximate calculations. Typical launch sequences may involve direct injection into a transfer orbit with probably a small reduction of the inclination at the same time. The calculations assume impulse (short time) burns so that the spacecraft does not move significantly during the burn time. If it takes longer you would do better to split the burn into a sequence of shorter burns done at the sequential apogees (about 12 hours apart). You may wish to start the orbit life with a small 'negative' inclination so it settles down of its own accord by the time you want to commence service. Ion thrusters have very high specific impulse but very low thrust so are better suited to station keeping rather than transfer orbit manoeuvres. If used for GEO orbit injection the use of ion thrusters give a very substantial reduction in cost to GEO orbit, but at the penalty of a very long time taken to get there. A typical apogee motor with have a thrust of 490 N, while an ion thruster will have a thrust of 0.05 N, so it might take perhaps seven to ten months to raise the orbit using ion thruster.

Modified to allow the possibility of using different specific impulses for transfer orbit and geo injection, illustrating the benefit of ion thrusters, albeit with the very long thrusting times, measured in months.

8-9 July 2019: Modified by adding the full period for the initial low circular and time for the elliptical transfer.

This calculator is only for educational purposes. The results of may be in error and should not be used for orbital manoeuvres or the navigation of real spacecraft.


If anyone uses this page and is able to do the calculations independently themselves please tell me where I am wrong.

Design your own rocket.


Do you need a rocket ? Here is a good educational tool to help you specify/design a rocket and get a price: https://www.rocketbuilder.com/start/configure

Any problems, suggestions for improvements or comments, please e-mail me Eric Johnston
This calculator is copyright (c) 2012 Satellite Signals Ltd.

Page started 30 Aug 2012. Amended 18 Nov 2018 HTML5, 8-10 July 2019 (added transfer orbit time and LEO period), 5 April 2021

definition - Geostationary transfer orbit

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A geosynchronous transfer orbit or geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) is a Hohmann transfer orbit used to reach geosynchronous or geostationary orbit.[1] It is a highly elliptical Earth orbit with apogee of 42,164 km (26,199 mi).[2] (geostationary (GEO) altitude, 35,786 km (22,000 mi) above sea level) and an argument of perigee such that apogee occurs on or near the equator. Perigee can be anywhere above the atmosphere, but is usually limited to only a few hundred km above the Earth's surface to reduce launcher delta-v (V) requirements and to limit the orbital lifetime of the spent booster.

The inclination of a GTO is the angle between the orbit plane and the Earth's equatorial plane. It is determined by the latitude of the launch site and the launch azimuth (direction). The inclination and eccentricity must both be reduced to zero to obtain a geostationary orbit. If only the eccentricity of the orbit is reduced to zero, the result is a geosynchronous orbit. Because the V required for a plane change is proportional to the instantaneous velocity, the inclination and eccentricity are usually changed together in a single manoeuvre at apogee where velocity is lowest. The required V for an inclination change at either the ascending or descending node of the orbit is calculated as follows:[citation needed]

For a typical GTO with a semimajor axis of 24,582 km, perigee velocity is 9.88 km/s and apogee velocity is 1.64 km/s, clearly making the inclination change far less costly at apogee. In practice, the inclination change is combined with the orbital circularization (or 'apogee kick') burn, so additional V is required.[citation needed]

Even at apogee, the fuel needed to reduce inclination to zero can be significant, giving equatorial launch sites a substantial advantage over those at higher latitudes. Kennedy Space Center is at 28.5 degrees north, the Guiana Space Centre, the Ariane launch facility, is at 5 degrees north latitude and Sea Launch launches from a floating platform directly on the equator in the Pacific Ocean. All have a significant advantage over Russia's high latitude launch sites.

Expendable launchers generally reach GTO directly, but a spacecraft already in a low Earth orbit (LEO) can enter GTO by firing a rocket along its orbital direction to increase its velocity. This was done when a geostationary spacecraft was launched from the space shuttle; a 'perigee kick motor' attached to the spacecraft ignited after the shuttle had released it and withdrawn to a safe distance.

Although some launchers can take their payloads all the way to geostationary orbit, most end their missions by releasing their payloads into GTO. The spacecraft and its operator are then responsible for the manoeuvre into the final geostationary orbit. The five hour coast to first apogee can be longer than the launcher's battery lifetime, and the manoeuvre is sometimes performed at a later apogee. The solar power available on the spacecraft supports the mission after launcher separation. Also, many launchers now carry several satellites in each launch to reduce overall costs, and this practice simplifies the mission when the payloads may be destined for different orbital positions.

Because of this practice launcher capacity is usually quoted as separated spacecraft mass to GTO, and this number will be higher than the payload that could be delivered directly into GEO.

For example, the capacity (separated spacecraft mass) of the Delta IV Heavy:[citation needed]

  • GTO 12,757 kg (185 km x 35,786 km at 27.0 deg inclination), theoretically more than any other currently available launch vehicle (has not flown with such a payload yet)
  • GEO 6,276 kg

If the manoeuvre from GTO to GEO is to be performed with a single impulse, as with a single solid rocket motor, apogee must occur at an equatorial crossing. This implies an argument of perigee of either 0 or 180 degrees. Because the argument of perigee is slowly perturbed by the oblateness of the Earth, it is usually biased at launch so that it reaches the desired value at the appropriate time. (If the GTO inclination is zero, as with Sea Launch, then this does not apply.)

The preceding discussion has primarily focused on the case where the transfer between LEO and GEO is done with a single intermediate transfer orbit. More complicated trajectories are sometimes used. For example, the Proton M uses a set of four intermediate orbits, requiring five rocket firings, to place a satellite into GEO from the high-inclination site of Baikonur Cosmodrome, in Kazakhstan.[3]

See also


Geostationary Orbit

  1. ^Larson, Wiley J. and James R. Wertz, eds. Space Mission Design and Analysis, 2nd Edition. Published jointly by Microcosm, Inc. (Torrance, CA) and Kluwer Academic Publishers (Dordrecht/Boston/London). 1991.
  2. ^Vallado, David A. (2007). Fundamentals of Astrodynamics and Applications. Hawthorne, CA: Microcosm Press. pp. 31.
  3. ^[1]

Gto Space

Articles related to orbits
  • Elliptical / Highly elliptical
  • Inclined / Non-inclined
  • Synchronous
About other points
  • Eccentricity
  • Semi-major axis
  • Semi-minor axis
  • Apsides
  • Inclination
  • Longitude of the ascending node
  • Argument of periapsis
  • Longitude of the periapsis
  • Mean anomaly
  • True anomaly
  • Eccentric anomaly
  • Mean longitude
  • True longitude
  • Geostationary transfer
Other orbital mechanics topics
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